Western Forest Complex - Erawan National Park
Erawan National Park

Western forest complex, Thailand

Erawan Waterfall

Western Forest Complex (WFC) is one of the largest protected areas in South East Asia spanning across two countries: Thailand and Myanmar. In Thailand, it is comprised of 15 reserves including such high priority conservation areas as Thung Yai Naresuan and Huai Kha Khaeng. 

WFC is thought to protect the world’s second largest single population of tigers (the largest tiger population is in Siberia). According to 2008 census, tiger population in WFC numbered over 700 individuals.

Not all of the sanctuaries in WFC are easily accessible to the visitors and some require special permissions to visit. I visited some of the sanctuaries over the years I spent living in Thailand, including Sri Nakarin, Umphang, Phu Toey, Sai Yok and Erawan.

Phu Toey National park

The visit to Phu Toey wasn’t a wildlife viewing expedition, but more of a pilgrim journey.  At the time, I was living in a Buddhist monastery in rural Kanchanaburi and our Abbot oversaw another small forest monastery deep in the jungles of Western Thailand near the village of Phu Toey inside the Phu Toey Sanctuary. I came along for a visit during one of the religious holidays.

The road to the monastery cut through the sanctuary and the local driver reminisced how he once saw a tiger on that road. And while the tigers have retreated from the populated areas in recent years, the dense jungle that dominates the sanctuary was still very much there.

Erawan National Park

Erawan waterfall is considered to be one of Thailand’s most beautiful waterfalls. The water cascades through primaeval jungle over seven tiers of the falls, past turquoise-coloured shallow pools on its way to the famous River Khwae (Mae Num Khwae Yai). It is those milky-turquoise pools at the lower tier of the falls that Erawan owes its fame to.

Western Forest Complex - Erawan Waterfall - bottom tier
Erawan Waterfall – bottom tier

The park is easily accessible from Kanchanaburi town and is a sight not to be missed.

I haven’t seen much of wildlife on any of the trips to Erawan. In 2008 I saw a Monocellate Cobra (Naja kaouthia) sleeping on the road at 8am—before the visitors arrived. There were some birds chirping in the canopy, but they were too far away and I couldn’t identify them.

Sai Yok National Park

I lived in the close vicinity of Sai Yok Yai national park for a number of years, though I only managed to visit the park once. While I did not see much in a way of wildlife, the dense jungle dominating the landscape of the park presented a good opportunity to see the habitat where this wildlife occurs.

Western Forest Complex - Sai Yok Yai
Jungle in Sai Yok Yak

The only creatures I spotted were a Common Iora, Puff-throated Babbler, Common Myna, a crab, a pair of courting Golden Birdwing butterflies as well as a few species of fish in the river.

Puff throated babbler in Sai Yok
Puff throated babbler
Common iora (female) in Sai Yok
Common iora (female)

The Sai Yok Yai waterfall is not as big as Huai Nakamin or as majestic as Erawan, but it presents a nice view as the water cascades into the river below.

Sai Yok Yai waterfall
Sai Yok Yai waterfall

Umphang Wildlife Sanctuary

I spent three days in the remote Umphang Sanctuary in December 2003. My friend was visiting me from Australia and I wanted to show her Thailand not typically seen by tourists. So we signed up for a trip to the mountains.

First day we spent rafting down the Mae Klong river that runs through the entire sanctuary.  It was quite a tranquil experience floating down the river past the pristine jungle covering the banks and 400 meter-high limestone cliffs sipping with water.

Western Forest Complex - Mae Klong river
Mae Klong river

We spotted a few White-throated kingfishers, a Blue-eared kingfisher a few Green bee-eaters and a Sprangled Drongo.

Green bee-eater
Green bee-eater
Sprangled drongo
Sprangled drongo

We spent most of the next day hiking up to the famous Tilawsu waterfall. This waterfall is the biggest in Thailand (measuring an estimated 400 meters high and up to 300 meters wide) and definitely one of the most beautiful. In full flow after the rainy season, the waterfall looked like a backdrop from the Lord of the Rings movies.

Tilawsu waterfall in Umphang Wildlife Sanctuary
Tilawsu waterfall

From the waterfall, we hiked to a small Karen village where we spent the night. It would have been nice to do some bird watching on the hike, but the terrain was so rugged that I had to keep my eyes (and at times my hands and knees) on the trail.

The third day’s main event was elephant riding through the forest to the road where the cars were waiting to pick us up for the ride back to Umphang. As with most organised tours, there wasn’t much time for extracurricular wildlife watching.

Sri Nakarin National Park

 Huai Mae Khamin waterfall
Huai Mae Khamin waterfall

The main attractions at Sri Nakarin National Park are the Sri Nakarin dam and the Huai Mae Khamin waterfall. The waterfall is quite difficult to reach, as the last 42 km of the road from Erawan is a badly eroded dirt track, and there is no public transport to the falls. So getting there is actually part of the adventure.

Sri Nakarin is the largest National Park in the west of Thailand. Its area of 1,532 square kilometres is mostly dense forest surrounding the Sri Nakarin Dam. The park is bisected by the River Khwae (Khwae Yai), which is at full flow all year round, which in turn means that the waterfall never dries out.

Huai Mae Khamin waterfall in Sri Nakarin National Park
Huai Mae Khamin waterfall

The Huai Mae Khamin Waterfall flows along the Mae Khamin Creek and cascades Over 7 limestone terraces.  The top level is the most impressive with thousands of gallons of water rushing off a steep cliff.

Western Forest Complex - Sri Nakarin National Park
Sri Nakarin Dam

On the way back we opted for a change of scenery and took two ferry rides to Sisawat instead of the dirt track. This is a great way to see the Sri Nakarin Dam. It is an immense body of water surrounded by rolling limestone hills covered in lush green jungle.  

By the time we reached the second ferry crossing the rain clouds closed in above, giving the surrounding landscape a slightly menacing feel.

Sri Nakarin Dam
Sri Nakarin Dam
Sri Nakarin dam
Sri Nakarin dam
Rain over Sri Nakarin Dam
Rain over Sri Nakarin Dam
Western Forest Complex - View from the road
View from the road

Map of the Western Forest Complex in Thailand

Western Forest Complex (sourced from www.ecn-thailand.org)
Western Forest Complex (sourced from www.ecn-thailand.org)
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